All posts by HQ-DKDX

WELCOME! 91DK263 – RIZA

Welcome Mr. Riza – 91DK263 as a big family of Delta Kilo International DX Group.

Its the Certificate of Membership as an official sign a member of DKDX
73s
de
President of DKDX
91DK001 Rio

Delta Kilo International DX Group
“Get the Taste with Us”

The 11 Meter Radio operator

The 11 Meter Radio operator is …

  • CONSIDERATE… He never knowingly operates in such a way as to lessen the pleasure of others.
  • LOYAL… He offers loyalty, encouragement and support to other 11 meter radio operators and radio clubs.
  • PROGRESSIVE… He keeps his station up to date. It is well-built and efficient. His operating practice is above reproach.
  • FRIENDLY… He operates slowly and patiently when requested; offers friendly advice and counsel to the beginner; kind assistance, cooperation and consideration for the interests of others. These are the marks of the 11 meter radio spirit.
  • BALANCED… Radio is a hobby, never interfering with duties owed to family, job, school or community.
  • PATRIOTIC… His station and skills are always ready for service to country and community.

The DX-Guideline

  • Listen before you call a station or activation.
  • If you cannot hear the station or activation in a pile up-situation, do not call.
  • A valid QSO is a two way radio contact between 2 radio stations, exchanging radio reports/progressive numbers both ways on air.
  • The most activations are using split frequencies, do not call on “TX-frequency” (unless you know for sure, that simplex is used).
  • Never shout: “What is the activation?”, “What is the split-frequency?” etc. on an activations
  • TX-frequency.
  • Never write QRZ/callsign on envelope when sending QSL.
  • Confirm always QSL, when you receive a QSL-card. When you receive a QSL-card, and sender is not in your log, you always return your card for collection only (for instance with thetext: “Not in log”).
  • Use an adult, mature and gentleman-like language

Cluster DX 11 Meter Band

Hello all members DKDX

This is information about Cluster DX on 11 Meter Band.

What is the International 11 Meter Cluster? … An 11 Meter DX cluster is a network of interconnected computers which exchange DX information for the 11 meter band.

There are several other ways of following the International 11 meter Cluster :

  • Clusterdx.nl
  • dx27.net
  • others

Open that URL on your Browser and Sign Up/Register.
Thank You

RADIO CODES

CB radio users have their own lingo, including RST code, ten codes, Q-code, phonetic alphabet and slang. RST-code is used by amateur radio operators, shortwave listeners, and other radio hobbyists to exchange information about the quality of a radio signal being received. The code is a three digit number, with one digit each for conveying an assessment of the signal’s readability, strength, and tone. The code was developed in the early 20th century and was in wide-spread use by 1912.

NATO phonetic alphabet, more formally the international radiotelephony spelling alphabet , is the most widely used spelling alphabet. Though often called ” phonetic alphabets “, spelling alphabets have no connection to phonetic transcription systems like the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the NATO alphabet assigns code words to the letters of the English alphabet acrophonically (Alfa for A, Bravo for B, etc.) so that critical combinations of letters (and numbers) can be pronounced and understood by those who transmit and receive voice messages by radio or telephone regardless of their native language, especially when the safety of navigation or persons is essential. The paramount reason is to ensure intelligibility of voice signals over radio links.

Q-code is a standardized collection of three-letter message encodings, all starting with the letter “Q”, initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication, and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. Although Q codes were created when radio used Morse code exclusively, they continued to be employed after the introduction of voice transmissions. To avoid confusion, transmitter call signs have often been limited to restrict ones starting with “Q” or having an embedded three-letter Q sequence. The codes in the range QAA-QNZ are reserved for aeronautical use; QOA-QOZ for maritime use, and QRA-QUZ for all services.

Ten(10)-codes, properly known as ten signals, are code words used to represent common phrases in voice communication, particularly by law enforcement and in Citizen’s Band (CB) radio transmissions. The codes, developed in 1937 and expanded in 1974 by the Association of Public Safety Communication Officials (APCO), allow for brevity and standardization of message traffic. They have historically been widely used by law enforcement officers in North America, although some departments have controversially attempted to prohibit their use.

CB slang (commonly called “CB Talk”) are terms that those operating CB radio used mainly during the CB craze of the 1970s and 1980s. Some of these slang terms are still in use with their original meanings, others not used at all and some have changed meaning.

RST-Code

When transmitting or receiving, it is very useful to be able to give and receive useful and consistent signal reports.

It helps to guide how to conduct the contact. To achieve this, a system known as the RST

reporting system is normally used.

As the name indicates, the RST reporting system is based around three numbers.

One is for Readability (R), one is for Strength (S), and one is for Tone (T). The tone is only used for Morse code transmissions.

The meanings for the different numbers are given in the table below:

Readability (S)

1 Unreadable
2 Barely readable
3 Readable with difficulty
4 Readable with little difficulty
5 Perfectly readable

Strength (S)

S1 Barely detectable
2 Very weak signals
3 Weak signals
4 Fair signals
5 Fairly good signals
6 Good signals
7 Moderately strong signals
8 Strong signals
9 Very strong signals

Tone

T1 Extremely rough note
2 Very rough note
3 Rough note
4 Fairly rough note
5 Note modulated with strong ripple
6 Modulated note
7 Near DC note but with smooth ripple
8 Near DC note but with trace of ripple
9 Pure DC note

Phonetic alphabet

A Alpha (AL fah)
B Bravo (BRAH voh)
C Charlie (CHAR lee *or* SHAR lee)
D Delta (DELL tah)
E Echo (ECK oh)
F Foxtrot (FOKS trot)
G Golf (GOLF)
H Hotel (hoh TELL)
I India (IN dee ah)
J Juliett (JEW lee ETT) (NOTE SPELLING: 2 T’s)
K Kilo (KEY loh)
L Lima (LEE mah)
M Mike (MIKE)
N November (no VEM ber)
O Oscar (OSS cah)
P Papa (pah PAH)
Q Quebec (keh BECK)
R Romeo (ROW me oh)
S Sierra (see AIR rah)
T Tango (TANG go)
U Uniform (YOU nee form *or* OO nee form)
V Victor (VIK tah)
W Whiskey (WISS key)
X Xray (ECKS ray)
Y Yankee (YANG kee)
Z Zulu (ZOO loo)

Q-Code

CODE DEFINITION
QHF : Are you going to the Hamfeast? I am going to the Ham
QRA : What is the name of your station? The name of my stati
QRB : How far are you from my station? I am km from yo
QRD : Where are you bound and where are you coming from?
QRG : Will you tell me my exact frequency? Your exact freque
QRH : Does my frequency vary? Your frequency varies.
QRI : How is the tone of my transmission? The tone of your tr
QRJ : Are you receiving me badly? I cannot receive you, your
QRK : What is the intelligibility of my signals? The intelligibility
QRL : Are you busy? I am busy, please do not interfere
QRM : Is my transmission being interfered with? Your transmis
QRN :Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static
QRO : Shall I increase power? Increase power.
QRP : Shall I decrease power? Decrease power.
QRQ : Shall I send faster? Send faster ( WPM.)
QRR : Are you ready for automatic operation? I am ready for a
QRS : Shall I send more slowly? Send more slowly ( WPM
QRT : Shall I stop sending? Stop sending.
QRU : Have you anything for me? I have nothing for you.
QRV : Are you ready? I am ready.
QRW : Shall I inform that you are calling? Please inform
QRX : When will you call me again? I will call you again at
QRY : What is my turn? Your turn is numbered .
QRZ : Who is calling me? You are being called by


QSA : What is the strength of my signals? The strength of you
QSB : Are my signals fading? Your signals are fading.
QSD : Is my keying defective? Your keying is defective.
QSG : Shall I send messages at a time? Send messa
QSJ : What is the charge to be collected per word to inclu
QSK : Can you hear me between your signals and if so can I b
QSL : Can you acknowledge receipt? I am acknowledging rec
QSM : Shall I repeate the last message which I sent you? Rep
QSN : Did you hear me on kHz? I did hear you on kH
QSO : Can you communicate with direct or by relay? I can
QSP : Will you relay to ? I will relay to .
QSQ : Have you a doctor on board? (or is on board?) I ha
QST : Message to all radio Amateurs (also USA ham magazin
QSU : Shall I send or reply on this frequency? Send a series o
QSV : Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency? Send a se
QSW : Will you send on this frequency? I am going to send on
QSY : Shall I change to another frequency? Change to anothe
QSZ : Shall I send each word or group more than once? Send
QTA : Shall I cancel message number ? Cancel message
QTB : Do you agree with my counting of words? I do not agree
QTC : How many messages have you to send? I have me
QTE : What is my true bearing from you? Your true bearing fro
QTG : Will you send two dashes of 10 seconds each followed
QTH : What is your location? My location is .
QTI : What is your true track? My true track is degrees.
QTJ : What is your speed? My speed is km/h.
QTL : What is your true heading? My true heading is degr
QTN : At what time did you depart from ? I departed from _
QTO : Have you left dock (or port)? I have left dock (or port).
QTP : Are you going to enter dock (or port)? I am going to ent
QTQ : Can you communicate with my station by means of the
QTR : What is the correct time? The time is
QTS : Will you send your call sign for minutes so that your
QTU : What are the hours during which your station is open?
QTV : Shall I stand guard for you on the frequency of kHz
QTX : Will you keep your station open for further communicati
QUA : Have you news of ? I have news of .
QUB : Can you give me information concerning visibility, heigh
QUC : What is the number of the last message you received fr
QUD : Have you received the urgency signal sent by ? I ha
QUF : Have you received the distress signal sent by ? I ha
QUG : Will you be forced to land? I am forced to land immediat
QUH : Will you give me the present barometric pressure? The


10-Code

CODE DEFINITION
10-1 Receiving poorly
10-2 Receiving well
10-3 Stop transmitting
10-4 Message received
10-5 Relay message to
10-6 Busy, please stand by
10-7 Out of service, leaving the air
10-8 In service, subject to call
10-9 Repeat message
10-10 Transmission completed, standing by
10-11 Talking too rapidly
10-12 Visitors present
10-13 Advise Weather/Road conditions
10-16 Make pick up at
10-17 Urgent business
10-18 Anything for us?
10-19 Nothing for you, return to base
10-20 My location is
10-21 Call by telephone
10-22 Report in person to
10-23 Stand by
10-24 Completed last assignment
10-25 Can you contact
10-26 Disregard last information
10-27 I am moving to channel
10-28 Identify your station
10-29 Time is up for contact
10-30 Does not conform to FCC rules
10-32 I will give you a radio check
10-33 Emergency Traffic
10-34 Trouble at this station
10-35 Confidential information
10-36 Correct time is
10-37 Wrecker needed at
10-38 Ambulance needed at
10-39 Your message delivered
10-41 Please turn to channel
10-42 Traffic accident at
10-43 Traffic tie up at
10-44 I have a message for you
10-45 All units within range please report
10-50 Break channel
10-60 What is next message number?
10-62 Unable to copy, use phone
10-63 Net directed to
10-64 Net clear
10-65 Awaiting your next message/assignment
10-67 All units comply
10-70 Fire at
10-71 Proceed with transmission in sequence
10-77 Negative contact
10-81 Reserve hotel room for
10-82 Reserve room for
10-84 My telephone number is
10-85 My address is
10-91 Talk closer to the microphone
10-93 Check my frequency on this channel
10-94 Please give me a long count (1-10)
10-99 Mission completed, all units secure
10-100 Toilet stop
10-200 Police needed at

DX Code of Conduct

I will listen, and listen, and then listen again before calling

I will only call if I can copy the DX station properly.

I will not trust the cluster and will be sure of the DX station’s call sign before calling.

I will not interfere with the DX station nor anyone calling and will never tune up on the DX frequency or in the QSX slot.

I will wait for the DX station to end a contact before I call.

I will always send my full call sign.

I will call and then listen for a reasonable interval. I will not call continuously.

I will not transmit when the DX operator calls another call sign, not mine.

I will not transmit when the DX operator queries a call sign not like mine.

I will not transmit when the DX station requests geographic other areas than mine.

When the DX operator calls me, I will not repeat my call sign unless I think he has copied it incorrectly.

I will be thankful if and when I do make a contact.

I will respect my fellow hams and conduct myself so as to earn their respect.

1. I will listen, and listen and then listen again before calling.

This seems so obvious but it is the most vital thing to do. Careful listening rather than rushing to transmit will get the DX into your log. You must listen to find out whether the DX is working split and if so, where is he listening? Then you need to listen to the calling stations in order to determine what the DX station is doing. For example, he may be working gradually up or down the pile-up frequency range – and you need to find the best spot to call. And it may be time to ask yourself: “Do I really need to work this bit of DX, right now? Can I wait a while for the pile-up to subside?”

2. I will only call if I can copy the DX station properly.

You also need to listen carefully to determine how well you can hear the DX station to be sure you will hear his reply to your call and to avoid causing interference by

transmitting at the wrong time. It is extremely frustrating for a DX station to return a call to a station that is unable to hear him, thereby causing incessant QRM.

3. I will not trust the Cluster and will be sure of the DX station’s callsign before calling.

Cluster spots often show the wrong call sign. Before you log a station, you should hear the station’s callsign on the air – don’t trust spotting networks. The DX operator should send his call sign at regular intervals. Unfortunately, not all operators do this!

4. I will not interfere with the DX station or anyone calling and will never tune up on the DX frequency or in the QSX slot.

Sadly, this covers a multitude of operators, employing poor operating practices. We are frequently afflicted with “Policemen,” people who repeatedly jump in to tell callers that “the DX is listening up” – often adding a gratuitous insult. The rule is quite simple: never, evertransmit on the DX frequency for any purpose whatsoever.

5. I will wait for the DX station to end a contact before calling..

If you transmit before a QSO is over, you are likely to interfere with the exchange of information, lengthening the QSO and slowing the process. It may seem clever to “nip in” as the previous contact is ending but many DX stations don’t like it, as such operating may break the pattern of the operator, which is what helps everyone to know when to transmit.

6. I will always send my full call sign.

This is essential for CW and SSB, because incomplete calls lead to an extra transmission, slowing the operator’s progress with the pileup. If the operator is

responding to partial call signs, it may appear that you should call with only several letters. Generally, this is not the case. Always use your full call sign.

7. I will call and then listen for a reasonable interval. I will not call continuously.

Continuous calling is selfish and arrogant. With a computer or memory keyer, it is easy to send continuously. Unfortunately, it prevents you from listening and knowing what is taking place. In addition, it raises the QRM floor greatly, making life difficult for the DX station and everyone else.

8. I will not transmit when the DX operator calls another callsign, not mine.

Perhaps this is intuitively obvious, but it is a common occurrence. If it is clear that the station is not calling you, do not transmit.

9. I will not transmit when the DX Operator queries a call sign, not like mine.

In life outside amateur radio it would simply be considered rude to answer when someone else is asked a question! How do you know if the station is calling you? Perhaps the DX operator has a partial version of your call. Is it me? “The timing is right!” Yes, the timing may seem right, but it may also be “right” for many other stations. If the DX is actually calling you and hears nothing, he will call you again. Then you can call. Only one letter from your call sign is NOT enough, however. Calling when not being addressed raises the floor level of QRM and slows progress dramatically.

10. I will not transmit when the DX operator calls other geographic areas, than mine.

You must recognise and accept that when an operator is calling for a specific geographic area (e.g. NA for North America, AS for Asia ), you must not call until the operator’s instructions change. Even if his choice appears incorrect, you must follow his instructions. The DX operator is in control. Here’s an important point: If a DX operator is working, some area, perhaps North America , and he fails to say so between QSOs, do not begin calling immediately. Call only when it is clear that the operator’s instructions have changed. To do otherwise is impolite and simply slows the process.

11. When the DX operator calls me, I will not repeat my callsign unless I think he has copied it incorrectly.

If you repeat your call sign, the DX station may think that he has your call sign wrong. He might then listen very carefully – again – thus slowing the process. A DX operator will generally log what he has if you say nothing further.

12. I will be thankful if and when I do make a contact.

There should certainly be a pride of accomplishment when you get a QSO with a guy in a far-away entity. But before you start basking in the glow of accomplishment, think about the help you received from your partners, perhaps Mr. Icom, Mr. Alpha, and Mr. Force 12. If your ego still feels a need to take ALL the credit, try again. But this time turn off your amplifier and connect your rig barefoot to a dipole. If you get through the pile up this time, then YOU, as the operator, can take more of the credit.

You should also acknowledge that you would not have had the contact without the skill of the operator at the other end who undoubtedly made sacrifices to be there for you. So be thankful for all this help you received.

13. I will respect my fellow hams and conduct myself so as to earn their respect.

Respect is about behaving well toward others. DXing is very competitive. If you operate otherwise, you may acquire a bad reputation. DXing will be the most fun for everyone if we all behave with politeness, mutual respect and even a bit of humility!

GENERAL OPERATING

RADIO LANGUAGE

  • Amongst  radio operators we never  use  expressions like ‘mister’, ‘miss’ or ‘misses’.  Radio operators always  address one another with their first name.
  • In spoken as well as written language (including e-mails)  we always  greet  one another using the expression ‘ 73’. Do not use  incerely  and similar expressions.
  • ‘73’ means best  regards. Hence, do not say or write 73s  (seventy threes), best  73 or many  73s  etc. Just  ‘   73’ is correct.
  • If you used to be a CB operator, erase the CB language from your memory,  and learn the 11 meter  radio idioms which will help you integrate into the 11 meter  and ham  radio community.
  • On the air, use  the Q-code (see also Radio codes) correctly.
  • Use the Q-code sparsely during phone contacts.
  • Use the international spelling  alphabet correctly.  Avoid fantasies.
  • English is the number one international 11 meter  and ham  language on the air.
  • Eleven  meter  radio is an ideal tool to learn and practice new languages.

LISTENING

  • Becoming a good radio amateur starts by listening a lot.
  • Be careful,  not all you hear  on the bands are good examples. Old-timers  also commit errors
  • If you are active on the bands, be a good example on the air.

USE YOUR CALL (CALLSIGN) CORRECTLY

  • Never start  a transmission by calling your correspondent with his first name or nickname.
  • Identify yourself using your complete callsign,  not just the suffix! Identify frequently.

ALWAYS BE A GENTLEMAN

  • Never use  faul language, stay polite, courteous and gentle,  under  all circumstances.

HOW DO YOU MAKE A QSO?

A QSO is a contact by radio between two or more radio operators.

  • How do you start  a QSO?
  • By making a general call (calling CQ).
  • Or by answering someone’s CQ.
  • Which call comes first?
  • Correct  is: ‘12DK345 from 67DK890  ’( you are 67DK890,  and 12DK345  is the person you address).
  • First give the call of the person you address, followed by your own call.
  • How often should  you identify?
  • When you first come  on the air, and when you leave  th air, and in between every  5 (in some countries 10) minutes.
  • Good  operatings says you should  identify at each QSO.
  • A ‘pause’ or a ‘blank’
  • When your correspondent switches the transmission over to you, it is a good habit to wait a second before  starting  your transmission, in order to check  whether someone may want to join you, or use  the frequency.
  • Long versus short transmissions
  • Make short transmissions, this makes it much  easier for your correspondent if he wants  to comment on something you said.

WHAT DO YOU TALK ABOUT ON THE 11 METER BAND?

  • In principle: about  the technique of radio communications
  • … in the broad  sense of the term.
  • Some subjects which are a no no  in amateur radio conversations on the air are:
  • Religion.
  • Politics.
  • Business (you can  talk about  your profession, but you cannot advertise for your business).
  • Derogatory remarks directed at any group (ethnic,  religious,  racial, sexual etc.).
  • ‘Bathroom humor’: if you wouldn’t tell the joke to your ten year  old child, don’t tell it on the radio.
  • Any subject that has  no relation whatsoever with the eleven meter  radio hobby

HOW DO YOU CALL CQ IN PHONE?

  • If you need to tune  your transmitter ® on a dummy load ® if need to do it on the antenna, only on a clear frequency!
  • Always start  by listening for a while.
  • Then  ask if the frequency is in use:  ‘is this frequency in use?’.
  • If you have  already listened for a while on an apparently clear frequency, why do you in addition have  to ask if the frequency is in use?
  • Because one station,  part of a QSO,  who is located in the skip zone  vs. your location, could be transmitting on the frequency. This means that you cannot hear  him (and he won’t hear  you) because he is too far for propagation via ground  wave and too close  for propagation via ionospheric reflection.  On the higher HF bands this usually means stations located a few hundred kilometres from you.
  • If you ask if the frequency is in use, his correspondent may hear  you and confirm. If you start  transmitting without asking,  chances are you will be causing QRM to at least  one of the stations onfrequency.
  • If it is in use, someone will probably  answer ‘yes’ or also ‘yes, thank  you for asking’.
  • If nobody  replies,  ask a second time if the frequency is in use.
  • If still no answer: call CQ…
  • ‘CQ from 12DK345,  12DK345  calling CQ, one two international radio three  four five calling
  • CQ and listening             ’. You can  also end by saying  ‘… calling CQ and standing by’.
  • Speak clearly and distinctly and pronounce all words correctly.
  • Give your call 2 to maximum  4 times during a CQ.
  • Use the international spelling  alphabet (for spelling  out your callsign) at least  once  during your CQ.
  • It’s better  to use  several consecutive short CQs rather  than  one long CQ.
  • Never end your CQ with ‘QRZ’. QRZ has  only 1 meaning: ‘who did call me?’…  Quite outof the question here.
  • Never end your CQ with ‘over’, you are not yet in contact with anyone, so there  is nobody yet you can  turn it ‘ over’  to.
  • –   If you call CQ and want to listen on another (than  your transmit)  frequency, always  end your CQ by indicating where  you will listen, e.g. ‘     …and listening 5 to 10 up’ or ‘…and listening on 27730 , etc.
  • If you specify a separate listening frequency, always  check  first if it is not yet in use!
  • WHAT MEANS  ‘CQ DX’?
  • If you want to contact long distance stations, call ‘CQ DX’.
  • What is DX?
  • On HF: stations outside your own continent, or of a country with very limited amateur radio activity (e.g. Mount Athos, Order of Malta etc. in Europe).
  • During a CQ you can  insist that you only want to work DX stations, as follows: ‘CQ DX, outside Europe, this is…
  • Always be obliging; maybe the local station  calling you after your CQ DX is a newcomer, and maybe you are a new country for him. Why not just give him a quick QSO?

CALLING A SPECIFIC  STATION

  • Let us assume that you want to call 67DK890  with whom you have  a sked  (schedule, rendez-vous).
  • Here’s how you do this: ‘67DK890, 67DK890  this is 12DK345  calling on sked  and listening for you
  • If, despite your directive call someone else  calls you, remain  polite. Give him a quick report and say ‘               sorry, I have  a sked  with 67DK890…’.
  • MAKING A PHONE  QSO (1)
  • 67DK890  answers your CQ: ‘12DK345 from 67DK890,  six seven international radio eight nine zero  is calling you and listening  ‘ or ‘12DK345 from
  • 67DK890,  six seven international radio eight nine zero  over
  • ’. Someone who answers your CQ can  obviously end his transmission with ‘over’ as he wants  to turn it over to you, who called CQ.
  • If you call a station  that has  called CQ (or QRZ), call that station  by giving his call not more than  once.  In most cases it’s better  not to give it at all; the operator knows his own call. In a contest you never  give the callsign of the station  you are calling.
  • ‘12DK345 from 67DK890  (be careful,  keep  the right sequence!), thanks for the call, I am receiving  you very well, readability  5 and strength 8 (usually  the indication on the S-meter on your receiver). My QTH is Asunción  and my name is Jorge (not my personal name, there  are no such  things as personal or impersonal names). How do you copy me?  12DK345  from 67DK890.  Over
  • -Using the word ‘over’ at the end of your over is recommended but not really a must.  A QSO consists of a number of transmissions or overs.  ‘  over’ stands for ‘   over to you
  • –   If signals are not very strong  and if the readability  is not perfect, you can  spell out your name etc. Example: ‘      My name is Jorge, spelled juliett, oscar, romeo, golf, echo…’ Do NOT say ‘ …juliett juliett, oscar oscar, romeo  romeo, golf golf, echo  echo
  • ’. This is not the way you spell the name Jorge.

MAKING A PHONE  QSO (2)

  • In most rubber  stamp QSOs data  regarding equipment and antennas will be exchanged, sometimes complemented with weather data  (can  influence  propagation).
  • It is the station  that called CQ which takes the leading  role in the contact. In principle it is this station  which determines the subjects of the conversation. It is possible that he just wants  to exchange a report.  As a calling station,  do not impose anything.
  • What starts as a short rubber  stamp-like contact can  evolve into serious and lengthy technical conversations and even  into real friendships. 11 Meter and Amateur  Radio can  be a real bridge builder between communities, cultures and civilizations!
  • If you wish to QSL (exchange cards), mention  it: ‘Please QSL. I will send my card  to you and would appreciate your card  as well  ’. A QSL is a postcard sized  report confirming a QSO you made.
  • QSL cards may be mailed direct to the other  station.  Some stations only QSL via a QSL manager who handles the mail for him/her.  Details  of those can  be found on various  websites.
  • To wrap up a QSO: ‘…12DK345, this is 67DK890  signing with you and listening for any other  calls                                               ’, or if you intend  to go off the air ‘…and closing down the station
  • You may add the word ‘out’ at the end of your last transmission, indicating you are closing down, but it is seldom done. Do NOT say ‘  over and out’, because ‘ over’ means you switch over to your correspondent, and in this case there  is no longer a correspondent!
  • Typical SSB  QSO for the  beginner:
  • Is this frequency in use? This is 12DK345
  • Is this frequency in use? This is 12DK345
  • CQ CQ CQ from 12DK345  one two international radio three  four five calling CQ and listening
  • 12DK345  from 67DK890  six seven international radio eight nine zero  calling and standing by
  • 67DK890  from 12DK345,  good evening, thanks for your call, you are 59. My name is Roberto, I
  • spell Romeo
  • Oscar Bravo Echo  Romeo Tango  Oscar and my QTH is Montevideo. How copy?  67DK890  from
  • 12DK345.  Over.
  • 12DK345  from 67DK890,  good evening Roberto, I copy you very well, 57, readability  5 and strength 7. My ame  is Jorge, Juliette  Oscar Romeo Golf Echo,  and my QTH is near  Asunción. Back to you Roberto. 12DK345
  • from 67DK890.  Over.
  • 67DK890  from 12DK345,  thanks for the report Jorge. My working conditions are a 100 Watt transceiver with a dipole 10 meter  high. I would like to exchange QSL cards with you, and will send you my card  directly. Many thanks for this contact, 73 and see you soon  again,  I hope.
  • 67DK890  from 12DK345.
  • 12DK345  from 67DK890,  all copied  100%,  on this side I am using 10 Watt with an inverted-V antenna ith the apex  at 8 meters. I will also send you my QSL card  direct, Roberto. 73 and hope to meet  you again  soon.  12DK345
  • from 67DK890  clear with you.
  • 73 Jorge and see you soon  from 12DK345  now clear (…and  listening for any stations calling)

HOW TO MAKE QSOs IN A PHONE CONTEST  (1)

Contest: is the name for a radio communication competition between radio amateurs.

What  is contesting? It is the competitive side of ham  radio.

Why contesting?

  • -During a contest a radio amateur can  measure the competitive performance of his station  and antennas, as well as his performance as an operator.
  • -‘The proof of the pudding  is in the eating’. How to become a good contester? Through  lots of practice and participation in contests. Are there many contests?  There  are many  contests from different Clubs and Organisations during the year. The contest calendar: available on all 11 meter  radio sites.

What  do you  do in a contest?

  • -Make as many  QSO’s as you can.
  • -Work as many  multipliers as you can.
  • -In a given time frame (e.g. 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 or 48 hours).

What  makes a contest QSO? The exchange of calls, and most often a report and a so-called contest exchange (often a serial or progressive number).

Contest operating is all about  speed, efficiency and  accuracy. One is expected to say only and exactly hat’s strictly required. No time for formalities.

HOW TO MAKE QSOs IN A PHONE CONTEST  (2)

  • If you are new to contesting, it is advisable to first visit a contester during a contest. You can  also make  your first steps in contesting by participating e.g. in a field day with your local radio club.
  • For your first contest, start  by listening to see how the routine  contesters go about  it. Identify the right procedures to make  fast contacts. Be aware that not all that you will hear are good examples. A few examples of common errors  are discussed further on.
  • An example of a fully efficient contest CQ is: ‘12DK345 one two international radio three four five contest                                                                                ’
  • Always give your call twice, once  phonetically, unless you’re in a big pileup, in which case you give your call just once  and forget about  spelling  it out every  time.
  • Why is the word contest the last word in your contest CQ? Because by doing so, someone who happens to tune  across your frequency at the end of the CQ, knows there  is someone calling CQ contest on that frequency. Even  the word CQ is left out as it is ballast  and contains no added information.
  • The caller (67DK890)  should  call you by merely  giving his call once:  ‘six seven international radio eight nine zero
  • If you don’t reply to him, he will after 1 second, probably  call again  (1 time his call).
  • If you copy him, reply as follows: ‘67DK890 59001’ or even  faster  ‘67DK890 591’( if the rules permit the short number format). Do not add anything  else, it would only be ballast.
  • If you copied  only a partial call (e.g. 67DK8..):
  • Go back to him as follows: ‘67DK8 59001’.
  • Do not send ‘QRZ 67DK8’ or anything  like that.
  • Being a good operator, 67IDK890  will return to you with ‘67DK890 six seven international radio eight nine zero,  you are 59012
  • Never say ‘67DK890 please copy 59001’, nor ‘67DK890 copy 59001’ which is equally bad. The ‘  please copy’ or ‘copy’ contains no additional  information.

HOW TO MAKE QSOs IN A PHONE CONTEST  (3)

  • Being an experienced contester, 67DK890  will come  back as follows: ‘59012’.
  • If he had not copied  your report he would have  said ‘report again’ or ‘please again’.
  • Last step  of the contest QSO: ‘thanks 12DK345  contest’.  Three  parts  in this exchange: thanks = end of QSO,  12DK345  = identification,  contest = new CQ contest.
  • Never end your QSO with ‘QSL QRZ’. Why?
  • ‘QSL QRZ’ does not tell anything  about  your identity (call). And you want all passers-by that stumble across your frequency at the end of your QSO,  to know who you are and that you are calling CQ-contest.
  • Therefore, always  end with ‘thanks 12DK345  contest’ (or ‘QSL 12DK345  contest’)  or if you are very much  in a hurry ‘ 12DK345  contest’ (this may however lead to confusion and sounds less  friendly).
  • ‘QSL’ means: I confirm
  • Don’t say ‘QRZ’ because QRZ means ‘who called me’, unless there  were more stations calling you in the first place  when you picked out 67DK890.
  • It all boils down to being  fast, efficient, accurate and correct.
  • Most contest operators use  a contest logging program on PC.
  • Search and pounce QSO’s: looking around the band  for multipliers and stations not yet worked,  and call them.  How do you do that?
  • Make sure  you are exactly zero  beat  with the station  you want to work (watch the RIT!).
  • Just  give your call once.  Don’t call as follows: ‘13DK989 from 12DK345’; 13DK989  certainly knows his call, and knows you are calling him because you call on his frequency!
  • If he does not return to you within 1 second, call again  (1 time) etc.

Example of a contest QSO on phone:

  • one two delta kilo three  four five contest (CQ contest by 12DK345)
  • six seven delta kilo eight nine zero  (67DK890  answers)
  • 67DK890  five nine zero  zero  one (12DK345  gives a report to 67DK890)
  • five nine zero  zero  three  (67DK890  gives his report to 12DK345)
  • thanks 12DK345  contest (12DK345  finishes  the contact, identifies  and calls CQ contest)
  • During some of the larger international contests (CQWW, WPX, ARRL DX, CQ-160m contest –all of these in phone as well as in CW-), contest operators not always  fully live by the IARU Band Plan.  This happens almost  exclusively  on 160m and 40m, because of the restricted space on those bands.
  • It is nice however to see that during these contests many  thousand of hams intensively occupy  our bands, which is very positive  in view of our required band  occupation (use  them or lose them).
  • The temporary nuisances caused by this exceptional situation,  should  best  be approached with a positive  attitude.

THE CORRECT USE OF QRZ

  • ‘QRZ’ means ‘who called me?’.
  • The most classical use  of ‘QRZ’is after a CQ, when you were unable to copy the call(s) of the station(s) that called you.
  • ‘QRZ’ does not mean ‘who’s there?’.
  • If you want to know the call of a station  which has  not identified for some time, don’t say ‘ QRZ’ but ask ‘your call please ’ or ‘ please identify
  • ‘QRZ’ does not mean ‘is there  anyone on this frequency?’.
  • If you want to check  if a frequency is in use  just say ‘is this frequency in use?’.
  • ‘QRZ’ does not mean ‘please call me’.
  • We more and more frequently  hear  CQ calls ending  with ‘QRZ’. This makes no sense. How can  someone already have  been calling if you just finished  a CQ?
  • Even  more funny is to say ‘QRZ is this frequency in use?’ or ‘QRZ the frequency?’.
  • ‘QRZ’ in a pileup:
  • Incorrect: CQ 12DK345 …67DK890  you’re 59QSL QRZ 12DK345
  • Incorrect: CQ 12DK345…67DK890  you’re 59QSL QRZ
  • Correct: CQ12DK345…67DK890  you’re 59 QSL 12DK345

CHECK YOUR TRANSMISSION  QUALITY

  • Have you properly adjusted your transmitter?
  • Is the microphone gain not set  too high?
  • Is the speech processing level not too high?  The background noise  level should  be at
  • least  25 dB down from your voice peak  level. This means that when you don’t speak, the output level of the transmitter must be at least  approximately 300 times lower than  the peak  power when you speak.
  • Ask a local radio operator to check  your transmission for splatter.
  • It is best  to check  the quality of the transmitted signal by using an oscilloscope which continuously monitors  the transmitted waveform.
  • Transmitting a ‘clean’ signal is a question of ethics.
  • If you  splatter, you  are  causing interference to other users of our  bands.
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